Stairs in the house to the second floor, photos and design features
Stairs in the house to the second floor, photos of which adorn the pages of thematic sites – this is not just a necessity, but attractiveness and beauty. Such stairs come in various types, our choice of which depends on the area of the room and its design, the wishes of the owners of the household. It is possible to install structures made of a variety of materials. This article is intended to give an idea of the types of stair structures, their components and the safety requirements that must be taken into account when constructing stairs to the second floor with their own hands.
- 1 List of the main elements of the stairs
- 2 Stairs in the house to the second floor, photos of various types and their features
- 2.1 Device and features of the spiral type of stairs
- 2.2 Main types of stairs and their advantages
- 2.3 Ladders fixed on bolts
- 3 Basic rules for the construction of stairs to the second floor with your own hands
- 4 Stairs to the second floor (video)
List of the main elements of the stairs
The most significant details of each staircase between floors are their steps and the supports on which they are held. The beams supporting the steps from the sides and from below are called bowstrings. The same beams, which only hold the steps from below, are called skewers. If there are three skewers, then the middle one will be called intermediate.
The steps themselves consist of a so-called tread (this is the horizontal surface on which a person’s foot steps) and a riser (a vertical detail). In the design of some stairs, risers may be absent altogether.
Bolts and racks act as supporting elements. The first are special bolts mounted in the wall. Stairs are attached to them. The rack is the main supporting element for any spiral staircase.
Assembled into a single structural structure, the steps with beams are staircases. It is designed to rise from the lowest level to the highest. If more than one march is provided in the construction of the stairs, then a platform is arranged between them, which serves to transition between marches directed in different directions.
Handrails serve as important and significant details of stairs, although they are not always used. The same applies to handrails, fences, cladding and finishing details. Sometimes there are additional details of fences in the form of steel rods and racks. The railings have supports made of balusters. They are called vertical stair elements, which are not only racks for railings, but also decorations.
Stairs in the house to the second floor, photos of various types and their features
There is a very extensive classification of stairs, taking into account their purpose, functionality, position, layout, mode of operation, construction and material. For the purposes of this article, we do not need to consider in detail all the classifying features. Note only that all home stairs can be divided into the following independent types:
- Spiral or helical.
- Consisting of a single or several marches.
- Ladders installed on boltsy.
We will consider these types in more detail in order to better imagine the technology of installing stairs to the second floor with our own hands.
The device and features of the spiral type of stairs
Spiral staircases are usually constructed in small rooms where it is impossible to place straight flights of stairs. To determine the amount of space needed for the construction of stairs, it is necessary to make some calculations. You only need to know the dimensions of the stairs. Usually the average length of steps for spiral stairs is in the range from 50 to 100 cm. Multiplying the length of the step by 2, we get the necessary diameter of the circle, which will be required to install the spiral staircase structure. The convenience of such stairs leaves much to be desired, but they can be successfully placed on a very small area. Probably, they should not be installed as the main ones, but they will be useful as auxiliary ones in the attic or basement.
The material for spiral stairs is wood or metal. Wedge-shaped steps are attached around a central pillar or pillar. Most often, the racks are made of metal pipe. The steps are attached to it with a narrow part. Their wide side is adjacent to the wall or balusters.
Useful advice! Spiral stairs with the most convenient parameters of the steps are the following: the width of the central part is 20 -25 cm, and the widest is 40 cm. Do not make a ladder with a diameter of less than 1.5 m, as its use will be too inconvenient and dangerous.
Marching types of stairs and their advantages
This design is the most common. It takes into account the laws of biomechanics of movements, so the descent and ascent are very convenient. However, the main staircases in the house to the second floor, the photos of which are most common, require a large enough area for their construction. It can be calculated as follows: it is necessary to measure the height of the wall near which the ladder will be installed, and the length of the floor. After that, draw a right triangle. In it, the wall and floor will be cathets, and the future staircase will be a hypotenuse. The parameters of the floor length need to be selected so that the angle of elevation is 45 degrees. We know from the physics course that this is the optimal angle for any movement. The width of the main staircase can be made any.
Useful advice! When constructing a flight of stairs, it should be borne in mind that there are from 3 to 15 steps in the correct flight of stairs, and more often 10 to 11. When this is not enough for a convenient ascent to the required height, then I arrange a platform on which the second march is mounted.
Ladders fixed on bolts
Boltz is a fastener, similar to a bolt or a long pin, on which a ladder is attached. Bolts are screwed into the wall and steps are attached to them. Sometimes elegant and weightless staircase structures are created in this way. Their steps seem to just float in the air. For this purpose, bolts are made in the form of long and strong pins. They are also fixed to the wall, but because of their strength they do not have any support from the opposite side. The design seems unreliable, but in reality, each step of such stairs may well hold up to 1 ton of cargo. Ladders mounted on bolts are not equipped with scythes or bowstrings, which makes them elegant even if there are railings.
The basic rules for the construction of stairs to the second floor with your own hands
Any ladder can be bought ready-made, ordered according to its size or even made by yourself. No matter which option you have chosen, the main thing is to know the following rules:
- If you are just designing your house, contact specialists to calculate the necessary parameters or calculate them yourself. Then you will be able to design an opening of the right size in advance.
- Be sure to decide on the type of stairs. If there is very little space, choose a helical one, if there is enough, then a marching one. If you want to build an elegant and practical design, then stop at Boltsy.
- The following opening sizes are recommended: for a straight march, an opening of 1.2 x 3.7 m will be sufficient; for an L-shaped device — 3.1 x 1.3 m; for a U-shaped configuration — 2 x 2.5 m. If the staircase is an ordinary spiral, then it needs an opening equal to 2.2 x 2.2 m; and if it performs an auxiliary function — 1.5 by 1.5 m.
- To ensure the safety of young children, the distance between adjacent balusters of the fence should be no more than 15 cm.
- The height of the stair railings should not exceed 85 cm. Optimal width: 25 — 30 cm.
- The bearing capacity of the stairs for any residential buildings is allowed at least 300 kg / m2.
- The steps should not be slippery. Moreover, their position inclined to the horizon level is completely unacceptable. Railings should be optimal for any height. First, the ladder is carefully fixed at the top or on the landing between two floors. The length of the entire staircase must exactly match the actual height of the floor. At the top, the railing is installed on reliable fasteners. The resulting staircase should have good strength, and the railing reliability and density.
- The angle of ascent of the stairs in the house to the second floor, the photo of which is most harmonious, does not exceed 45 degrees. A range of 35-40 degrees is allowed. The width of the steps is at least 80 cm, the most optimal is from 90 to 120 cm.
Useful advice! One should not neglect the engineering requirements for the construction of stairs in favor of decorative elements. This can cause a lot of trouble.
Observing all the proposed rules, you can independently make or install a beautiful and safe staircase in the house to the second floor. Photos of your work can then be shown with pleasure to your old good friends.
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