Tips for choosing and laying porcelain stoneware on the stairs
The appearance of the untreated concrete staircase leaves much to be desired, so the cladding is very important to give the structure an aesthetic appearance. One of the most durable and attractive finishing options are the steps made of porcelain stoneware. The tread can be monolithic or assembled from individual elements.
Porcelain stoneware, its advantages and disadvantages
This artificial material is made from quartz sand, kaolin, feldspar and clay. The resulting mixture is ground to a dusty state. The pressure under which it is pressed reaches 500 kg / cm, so that micropores, cracks, and cavities do not form inside.
After drying in the oven, the material is sent under the press
The resulting plates are fired at a temperature of at least 1300 ° C so that all components enter into a chemical reaction and completely fuse into a homogeneous mass. The resulting ceramic granite does not lose its color, as mineral pigments are added to the mixture at the initial stage of production.
This material is strong, durable, resistant to mechanical damage. Due to the absence of micropores, it does not absorb moisture, therefore it withstands any negative temperatures and does not collapse with a sharp temperature drop.
Ceramic granite is resistant to acids and alkalis, so there are no stains on it, and a damp cloth is enough to care for it.
This material can be painted in any color and give it almost any texture, which makes the composite indispensable for solving various design ideas. It is environmentally friendly and is not subject to gorenje.
For all its advantages, porcelain stoneware has some disadvantages. The first is a fairly high cost. The second is a cold surface on which it is inconvenient to walk barefoot. However, you can use a floor heating system for this.
Requirements for steps
Despite the fact that the steps have a simple design, they must meet certain requirements:
- the material should not be slippery (especially for stairs for the street);
- easy installation that does not require much difficulty;
- the color and shape of the steps should be in harmony with the interior or exterior.
Types of steps and equipment
Usually the complete set of the series consists of a tread, a riser and a decorative baseboard. The steps can be monolithic or prefabricated.
The length of the solid models is 1200-1300 mm, and the thickness is 7-15 mm. The cost of monolithic granite steps is higher than the tile options. But this design is much stronger and looks better due to the lack of seams.
For prefabricated steps, modular or solid tiles with dimensions of 300×300, 450×450, 300×600 mm are most often used. The laying can be seamless or with a decorative seam.
In standard plates, the treads have cuts and relief strips of abrasive material. The shape of the edge of the step can be simple or curly. In some cases, the shaped parts are made separately from the plate.
Steps with a riser
Under the tread there is a riser having a height of 100-150 mm. Combining this element with horizontal slabs, the staircase will look visually solid and stylistically flawless.
Steps with skirting board
As a decoration in the corners between the wall and the stairs, a granite skirting board is used, covering the docking seams.
The use of this element is not necessary, but it perfectly helps in cases when the steps can not be perfectly aligned with the wall.
Tips for choosing granite steps
Different models of slabs for steps have different surface texture. They are classified according to the following criteria:
- Polished plate with a specularity above 80%. From this material, you can safely lay out a ladder inside the room.
- A semi-polished plate with a specularity of no more than 25% can fit both on interior and street stairs.
- The matte plate is roughly ground and chemically burned. This surface does not slip at subzero temperatures and precipitation. Ideal for outdoor surfaces.
- Glazed plate in the presence of a high percentage of specularity has high anti-slip properties. This material is used for indoor and outdoor stairs.
When choosing ceramic granite slabs, it is necessary to check the absorption of moisture, for which it is necessary to moisten the surface abundantly with water. It should not soak into the tile. The easiest way to check this is by weighing the sample before and after wetting.
If it is planned to do the lining of the street stairs, it is better to stop the choice on slabs with a rough surface to avoid slipping in inclement weather and frost. When choosing an outdoor tile, you need to pay attention to the filling with dye – it should be homogeneous. Such material has been properly processed and will be resistant to mechanical and weather influences.
Marching stairs are finished with straight slabs. Beveled slabs made to order are placed on spiral and semicircular stairs.
If there is a low passability in the room, then it is best to lay glazed ceramic granite. In office and other buildings where traffic is high, it is better to use matte, unglazed panels. The installation of steps with kapinos is a more durable solution, in addition, it will give the stairs an aesthetic appearance.
Kapinos is a rounding at the end of the tile, which takes on the main abrasion load from the feet of a walking person.
In order not to spend a lot of money on the repair of steps in the future, it is best to do the facing of steps with a separate leading edge. In this case, it will be enough to replace one part.
With extreme wear, such a capino can be replaced without removing the tile from the steps
Technology of facing steps with granite
- For facing the steps with granite slabs, preliminary preparation of the base is necessary. First, an acrylic primer is applied to the surface to improve the adhesion of the slab and the ladder base. After it dries, all the irregularities are leveled with putty. Then the acrylic emulsion is applied a second time to make the primer more qualitative.
- Before laying, you need to check the size of the slabs and steps for compliance. If necessary, a water-cutting machine can be used for trimming, with which an even cut is made. Due to the use of this equipment, the cut edge does not crack, there are no chips and scratches on it.
In the absence of such a machine, it is allowed to use a conventional tile cutter.
3. If the lining is made of prefabricated elements, then it is necessary to mix all the packages so that the finish is homogeneous. Previously, we recommend comparing the color marking indicated on the box with the marking on the tile. They must match each other.
4. Prepare the glue. To do this, the dry mixture is diluted with the necessary amount of water specified in the instructions, mixed with a construction mixer and left for 15 minutes until a homogeneous mass is formed. This time is enough for all the components to completely dissolve.
5. Using a toothed spatula, glue is applied to the base and a tile is applied. This tool should be selected according to the size of the step and the plate. When applying glue, make sure that the entire surface is completely covered with the composition.
6. Laying of slabs, starting from the upper stage of the base.
After the risers are laid, the treads are lined. The corners are treated with a corner made of plastic or metal. After that, grout of all seams and subsequent stripping are done.
In order for the joint to be perfect, the slab must be on the same level with the step. It is allowed that the tile is slightly wider. If there are protruding places after laying, then they must be cut off. When facing street steps, a slope of 1-2 degrees is made so that the water flows freely and does not remain on the surface. Professional craftsmen advise leaving a thin channel on the side to drain moisture.
Care of granite steps
To clean a staircase lined with ceramic granite slabs, it is enough to use an ordinary soap solution. This coating does not require special polishing mastics or detergents. Even if there is a strong contamination on the surface, you can use any product containing alkali or acid. It will not harm the surface of porcelain stoneware.
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