Stairs to the second floor with your own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn: calculation and installation
Many modern materials are offered for the manufacture of stairs. Nevertheless, wooden stairs in the interior of the house are the standard of impeccable style. It is the wooden structures that form the feeling of home comfort. The key points in the arrangement of stairs are accurate calculation, high-quality manufacturing and correct installation. The staircase to the second floor with your own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn can be installed thanks to the exact following of the recommendations for the design and calculation of the structure. It will save useful space and ensure free and comfortable movement on it.
- 1 Types of stairs to the second floor. Design photos of different models
- 2 Types of rotary flight stairs
- 3 Stairs to the second floor with your own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn: we design ourselves
- 3.1 Materials and tools for making wooden stairs to the second floor with your own hands
- 3.2 Features of calculations of a 90-degree rotating staircase structure
- 3.3 Calculation of wooden stairs to the second floor with your own hands: drawings, diagrams, tables
- 3.4 Self-manufacturing and installation of a load-bearing slant beam
- 3.5 Making steps and assembling stairs
- 3.6 Installation of balusters and handrails for stairs made of wood with your own hands, photos of carved products
Types of stairs to the second floor. Design photos of different models
Before you equip your house with a staircase structure, it is necessary to determine exactly what type of staircase will be and of what material. The choice of the type of staircase system depends on its location in the room, the layout of the house and the individual preferences of the owner. Materials for their manufacture, given the rapid growth of technologies, can be a variety of samples: plexiglass and ceramics, natural stone and marble, metal and wood.
The main types of stairs are classified according to the type of bearing element:
- marching ladders — on kosours or bowstrings;
- spiral stairs — with a support in the form of a load-bearing rack;
- stairs on boltsy — beskosour systems. The steps of such a ladder are attached to the wall, and are connected to each other with the help of bolts;
- combined — when one system includes several types of structures.
The main difference of the oblique design is that the steps are fixed on top of the supporting element. While the bowstring systems have recesses where the steps are inserted. Marching systems, in turn, may consist of several marches connected by a platform or run-up steps.
The choice of a particular marching system depends on the location of the stairs in the room and the availability of the necessary space for its installation. In the case when space is limited, rotary systems of flight ladders are used. To connect different levels in private cottages, stairs made of wood are most often used. Such constructions are quite light, fit well into various interiors and can be made independently.
Numerous photos of wooden stairs to the second floor with their own hands confirm the popularity of using this material for stair structures.
Stairs on Boltsy do not have a frame in their design. Each step of such a ladder with the help of special fasteners rests on one side on the wall, and on the other side is connected in series by bolts. The designs of stairs on boltsy have an openwork light appearance and have high strength. You can install such ladders along the wall, which will be a supporting element, or in any other place in the room — then a metal profile will act as a supporting structure.
The variety of modern staircase systems in the interior is evidenced by photos of stairs in the house to the second floor with their own hands.
Types of rotary flight stairs
Marching ladder systems can be straight and pivoting. Straight marches in private homes are used when the dimensions of the rooms are spacious enough to install a long straight span. Most often, wooden rotary systems are used to connect the first and second floors. So, there are stairs made of wood to the second floor with a turn of 90 and 180 degrees. They are called respectively L-shaped and U-shaped.
The marches of L-shaped stairs can be connected to each other by platforms, two running (turning) steps, three turning steps. The greater the number of turning steps, the less convenient it will be to move along them. Ladder structures installed in a corner and having a fence include in their design a corner (support) pole, on which run-up steps, balusters and a bowstring are attached. The corner post is installed on the base or can be hung.
U-shaped ladder systems are structurally solved through a turntable or run-up steps. When arranging a U-shaped staircase, an important point is that the staircase fence in the upper projection should not intersect, so it is important to correctly calculate the stairs to the second floor. Both in U-shaped and L-shaped rotary staircases, the use of run-up steps allows you to save the room space as much as possible.
The space remaining under the swing stairs is often advantageously used for storage rooms or cabinets. Some photos of stairs to the second floor in a private house clearly demonstrate this with their own hands.
Stairs to the second floor with your own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn: we design ourselves
Many manufacturers today offer ready-made sets of elements for staircase systems. To order such stairs to the second floor, you will need to make clear measurements of the height of the span, determine the estimated width and length of the stairs and transmit the data to the selling company. However, this method will deprive you of the pleasure of making a staircase structure yourself, giving it individuality and uniqueness.
Materials and tools for making wooden stairs to the second floor with your own hands
The use of wood in construction, including for the manufacture of stair structures, is due to high strength indicators, environmental friendliness, ease of processing and a relatively affordable price.
Stairs to the second floor with their own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn can be made of the following hardwoods:
- beech — used for rooms where there is no high humidity;
- maple — its wood is very stable, has sufficient bending strength. However, it should be borne in mind that maple is predisposed to the appearance of cracks;
- oak is an excellent building material. It has strength, hardness, rather heavy material;
- larch is a rot—resistant, hard and durable wood. In hardness, this breed is second only to oak.
Sometimes pine is used for stairs, but it is necessary to check the wood for the presence of knots. Under the influence of the temperature regime, deformation of the staircase structure is possible, as a result of which knots may fall out and lead to a weakening of the structure.
When starting the manufacture of a staircase structure, the wood must first be thoroughly dried and treated with special compounds to make it resistant to moisture, mold and mildew.
To make a wooden staircase to the second floor, you will need:
- the bearing beam is 100×100 mm (the cross-section can be large, depending on the height of the flight of stairs);
- edged board with a thickness of 40-50 mm;
- handrails, railings, balusters;
- joiner’s glue for sealing all connecting lines and gaps.
Stairs to the second floor with their own hands made of wood with a 90-degree turn can be made and mounted using the following tools:
- wood hacksaw, drill set, chisel, file;
- screwdriver, puncher, drill, electric jigsaw;
Useful advice! When working with a power tool, follow the safety rules: use protective equipment (glasses, gloves), do not hold on to the cord of a working tool, monitor the position of the wire to avoid damage to it, do not use the tool near an open fire.
- axe, hammer;
- square, ruler, level;
- gas wrench, side cutters (side cutters);
- hardware: screws, screws, anchors, corners.
Features of calculations of a 90-degree rotating staircase structure
For the correct calculation and design of the main turning staircase, you should familiarize yourself with some of the features of such structures.
The main elements in them are:
- load—bearing beams – these can be slanting or bowstring beams;
- steps — in rotary ladders, these are straight steps and rotary (runaway), with the help of which the rotation of the structure is realized;
- stair railings — include balusters and handrails.
The calculation of rotary ladders is carried out using:
- geometric formulas;
- graphical methods — here you will need to determine the middle line of the span (march). In a curved structure, this line runs parallel to the inner edge of the structure at a distance corresponding to the middle of the width of the step. The radius of rounding of the rotary stage depends on the radius of the circle between the two spans.
- you can use an online calculator to calculate, where basic data is entered: the length and width of the opening, the height of the steps, the thickness of the slope and the ledge of the steps.
Calculation of wooden stairs to the second floor with your own hands: drawings, diagrams, tables
When calculating a wooden staircase to the second floor with your own hands with a 90-degree turn, you should decide which way the turn will be provided: by means of an inter-marching platform or turning (running) steps. Considering that stairs with a platform are installed in fairly spacious houses, we will give as an example a rotary staircase with run-up steps.
When designing and calculating the stairs yourself, it is necessary to take into account the following points:
The height and width of the steps. They should be such that any person, including a child or an elderly person, can move up the stairs to the second floor. Given that the average human step is 60 cm, you can calculate the height and width of the stairs using the formula:
2b + c = 60 (cm), where
b, c — the dimensions of the steps (height and width).
Based on the formula, we get a tread width equal to the average length of a person’s foot. Then, when walking, the entire foot is supported on the surface of the step. If the width of the steps is greatly increased, then when walking up the stairs, the step will be lost and it will become inconvenient to move along it. If the steps are too narrow, it will be difficult and unsafe to descend such a staircase.
The angle of inclination of the structure. Many, in order to save the space occupied by the stairs, make it steeper. This is not always justified, so the descent and ascent of such stairs will be difficult.
Useful advice! If it is not possible to install a flight of stairs with a slope of more than 20 degrees in your room, it is recommended by design specialists to replace the ladder with a ramp (ramp). Stairs that are too steep should be replaced with folding ladder systems.
Rotary steps. When determining the dimensions of the run-up steps, it should be taken into account that their width on the narrow side should not be less than 100 mm and the overhang of the turning step over the previous one should not be more than 50 mm.
You can order a graphical calculation method from professionals, given the complexity in designing and calculating stairs to the second floor in a private house (photos, prices are presented in the price lists of design companies).
Self-manufacturing and installation of a load-bearing oblique beam
Kosour is made of a wooden beam with a length equal to the size of a flight of stairs (march). The thickness of such a support should not be less than 50 mm. Before you start sawing a slanting beam, you need to make a template. A piece of triangular plywood with dimensions corresponding to the height and width of the steps can act as a template. According to this sample, markings are applied to the beam and a toothed structure is cut out.
Our design assumes two supporting elements. Subsequently, the steps of the ladder will be attached to the teeth of the slanting beams.
Then proceed to fixing the slanting beams. It is recommended to start with fixing the upper parts of the scythe so that possible errors can be easily eliminated at the bottom. Usually one of the kosourov is attached to a ceiling beam and a support beam with a cross section of 100 mm. The beam itself is fixed with anchor bolts or concreted into the floor, if the repair work on the arrangement of the floor has not yet been completed.
Useful advice! In order for the scythe to be firmly fixed, a small recess is cut out in the support beam. The size of the recess should be 1 mm smaller than the cross-section of the slant, about 2 cm deep, so that the slant beam fits closely into this groove.
Then they arrange supports for the kosour, which will be located directly near the wall. For this purpose, supports made of 50×50 mm timber are used. With its help, a base is made for turning steps. To do this, the end of the support beam is cut out for the inserts of the rotary steps. The work is controlled by the level.
For a more detailed acquaintance with the methodology of the work, we offer a video “Stairs made of wood to the second floor with your own hands”:
Making steps and assembling stairs
The steps for the stairs are cut out according to a template. All steps, except for the turning ones, must be of the same size. The run-up steps are also cut out according to the prepared sample according to the drawing. All prepared steps are covered with protective means and a varnish coating is applied in several steps.
Stairs to the second floor in a private house with their own hands. The scheme of the staircase design. Types of ladder systems. Independent installation of stairs: calculation, manufacture, installation.
The next stage of work will be the production of a bowstring for the lower flight of stairs. It is made from a board, but without toothed saws. The steps in the bowstring support will enter the grooves previously sawn from the inside of the bowstring.
The bowstring that is attached to the wall is made in the same way. The upper part of the outer bowstring support should completely hide the end of the rotary step, while its lower part is sawed off perpendicular to the floor.
The installation of the steps is carried out by fixing the screws on the outside, and the inside is treated with carpentry glue. In the steps, the grooves are cut out so that they clearly enter when laying on the kosour.
When mounting the rotary steps, it is necessary to control that the connection with the support is sufficiently rigid. If the connection is weak, you can try to fix a step or cut another one.
The mounting of the risers starts from the bottom edge of the stairs. The risers are cut out in size by 5 mm less than the height of the steps. This is done so that in case of swelling, the risers do not deform the entire structure. Sometimes the gap between the steps is not covered with risers to give the staircase structure a lighter look.
How is the wooden staircase to the second floor made with your own hands? The video at the end of the article will help to understand in detail the stages of installation.
Installation of balusters and railings for stairs made of wood with your own hands, photos of carved products
Independent production of balusters is a painstaking and delicate work. If you are sure that all the elements will turn out to be the same and aesthetic, you can do it yourself. If there are doubts, it is better to buy ready-made products. Their choice is quite large: from simple to exquisite decorative elements. You can come up with your own drawing and order balusters and railings from the manufacturer — experienced craftsmen will produce elements of any complexity. The available photos of railings for stairs made of wood confirm the huge selection of such elements.
Useful advice! For safe movement on the stairs, especially for children, it is recommended to carry out a fence made of balusters at least at each step.
Balusters are attached to the steps by means of dowels (wooden rods). To do this, appropriate holes are drilled in each step along the edge. The hole should have a smaller diameter than that of the sheet, which will ensure the rigidity of the fastening. Before inserting the rod, carpentry glue is poured into the hole.
In the places of turns of staircases, as well as at the beginning and end of the march, more durable balusters, called bollards, are installed. They will subsequently act as a place of fixing the handrails.
In the balusters, the same holes are arranged for a wooden spike and they are also treated with glue. Then insert the sheet into the baluster and fix it on the step.
How to make handrails for stairs made of wood with your own hands? Photo, video lessons will help to study the ways of fastening the elements of the staircase structure.
In order to mount the railing neatly and smoothly, a painted fishing line is stretched between the uppermost balustrade and the support beam. She will leave marks on all the balusters. If it turns out that there are extra centimeters of balusters, they are cut off parallel to the oblique beam.
To fasten the handrail, we select a groove in it along the entire length, into which the rail will subsequently enter. The rail is turned out with a width equal to the width of the groove in the handrail. We nail the rail to the balusters, thus fixing them. The handrail is put on the rail and fixed on the support balusters (bollards) from above and below the span with the help of studs.
Making and installing wooden stairs is quite a difficult task. If you do not have a certain experience working with wood and carpentry tools, it is worth ordering ready-made sets of prefabricated stairs. They are manufactured in compliance with all technical standards for individual and standard sizes.
Wood is a typical material for the manufacture of stairs and such products have always been appreciated. Constructions made of natural wood are eco-friendly, durable and can act as the main decor of a country cottage. The only condition is high-quality processing and careful care of the wooden elements of the stairs. If these conditions are met, the staircase will serve you for many years, preserving its original appearance.