Stair railings: options for creating a beautiful and safe interior
First of all, the stair railing is designed to ensure safe movement. In addition to stairs, they are also necessary for other potentially dangerous structures: balconies, terraces, verandas. Most often, wood, metal, and durable glass are used for manufacturing. To make the staircase look harmonious, its constituent elements are performed in a single style. At the same time, we should not forget to “adjust” the design to the surrounding interior.
- 1 Types of stairs: basic requirements for the organization of the structure
- 2 What is a railing: the expediency of their installation
- 2.1 What other elements does the stair railing consist of
- 3 Basic norms and standards: what should be the width and height of the railing on the stairs
- 3.1 Other standards that railings and fences in buildings must comply with
- 4 Stair railings: types of structures, materials for manufacturing
- 4.1 Features of using wooden stair railings
- 4.2 Why are stainless steel and aluminum stair railings popular
- 4.3 Advantages and disadvantages of wrought iron handrails for stairs
- 4.4 Features of plastic and glass railings for stairs
- 4.5 Stone and concrete railings to the terrace and other outdoor structures
- 5 Why do we need upper support elements of railings: fences made in various versions
- 5.1 Other popular design options for railings and handrails
Types of stairs: basic requirements for the organization of the structure
The type of stairs in a private house or a two-storey apartment should be considered at the stage of construction or repair. When arranging the space, you need to understand that the staircase is a massive structure that occupies a prominent place in the room. For this reason, it is important not only to take into account the safety aspects, but also to choose the optimal design, shape and material of manufacture so that the product becomes a continuation of the surrounding interior. There are such types of stairs in the house:
In a separate group, you can select air stairs, which are steps mounted with one edge in the wall. This option looks laconic and will be a great addition to the interior in high-tech style or other modern direction. As for design issues, when choosing a design, you should rely on such basic recommendations:
- If the staircase is large and located at a high slope, small platforms should be arranged every 8-12 steps so that there is an opportunity to rest and catch your breath when climbing.
- The optimal width of the step is considered to be 80 cm. It is this distance that is enough for 2 people to safely miss each other on the stairs.
- For an average height, 15-20 cm is considered a comfortable step height for lifting. The parameter should be selected based on the average height of the tenants of the premises.
- The minimum depth of the step should not be less than 25-30 cm.
- When creating a landing, it should be taken into account that it should be wider than the flight of stairs.
- You should not design a staircase with a slope of more than 45 degrees, because otherwise the product will not be considered safe. The optimal indicator is an angle of 25-35 degrees.
- The material for the construction of stairs should not be combustible. Even if wood is used for manufacturing, it needs to be treated with special flame retardants.
Expert advice! The angle of elevation of the stairs and railings directly depends on the area allocated for the installation of the structure. If the space is very limited, it is better to give preference to a spiral staircase. Numerous twists and turns will help smooth out a large slope.
What is a railing: the expediency of their installation
Handrails are a mandatory element of any staircase. In addition to the fact that the products increase the comfort of using the entire structure, they provide additional security and make the staircase more durable and stable. It is thanks to the fences that you can give the stairs an original and complete look.
It is a mistake to think that railings are needed only for the elderly, children, or those who have problems with the musculoskeletal system: it is generally assumed that these categories of people have difficulties with stability and safe movement on the steps.
Most designers claim that even a healthy adult prefers to use stairs equipped with handrails, because they cause a sense of security. In case of a fall or other unforeseen situation, a person will grab precisely for the fences.
In addition to the fact that stairs with handrails are more convenient to use, the elements also perform an aesthetic function, because they can be given an attractive appearance. Fences are made in any color, decorated with carvings or forged elements, depending on the interior, angular or rounded details are thought out.
A variety of materials will help to give an individual appearance to fences, it can be wood, plastic, metal or glass. The railing can be attached to the steps or mounted into the wall – everything will depend on the imagination, the features of the installation site and the chosen interior design.
What other elements does the stair railing consist of
So, in addition to the railings, which provide convenient descents and ascents of stairs, the elements of fences include:
Handrails are, in fact, part of the railing, which is located at the top of the fence. It is the handrails that a person holds on to when using a ladder. Interestingly, if you lean on the handrails during a long climb, you will be able to remove up to 20% of the load from your feet. These elements of fences are fixed on balusters, they can be located on one or two sides.
Useful advice! It is recommended to mount handrails on both sides if the width of the stairs exceeds 125 cm. When the structure is installed along the wall, you can attach the handrails directly to the wall surface.
Balusters are support posts, using which the fencing is attached to the surface of the step. In addition to performing a decorative function, balusters increase the bearing capacity of the stairs. Placeholders are mounted between them. According to the variant of execution , the racks are divided into the following types:
- Classic. They are the most common variant consisting of vertically mounted or inclined curly rods.
- Solid. If you turn to the photo of balusters for stairs, you can pay attention to the fact that this option is considered the safest for homes where children live and there are pets. It will not be possible to get between adjacent elements, because they are installed close to each other.
- Crossbar. A simple design representing the intersection of vertical and horizontal slats.
- Patterned. Here everything will depend on the imagination of the performer, because it is appropriate to give the filling any artistic form. The fence made of balusters, made using various monograms, looks beautiful in a classic interior.
To create unique products of its kind, it is permissible to use a combined design of fences. Sometimes the installation of balusters on the stairs is replaced by a bowstring, which is a horizontal fence fixed under the handrails parallel to the stairs. Some railings may also have a plug, the so-called bollard, which is installed at the beginning and end of the span instead of balusters. A plug is a purely decorative detail that does not carry any functional load.
It’s interesting! On the trading floors, you can find ready-made prefabricated or solid versions of railings. If it is decided to make products on an individual order, you need to be prepared for embezzlement, both monetary and temporary. But the exclusive staircase, made in a single copy, will always be the pride of the owners.
Basic norms and standards: what should be the width and height of the railing on the stairs
Properly selected stair railings will ensure the safest possible movement along the steps, thereby reducing the risk of injury. Sometimes you can find a variant of the design of stairs without railings. They look very unusual, but many people note that it is quite inconvenient to use them. You should know that certain standards have been developed that regulate the dimensions of the elements. As for the height of the stair railing, it is recommended to choose the best option depending on the average height of the inhabitants of the dwelling.
Most experts will recommend an experiment when designing handrails. To do this, you need to stand comfortably on the step and stretch out your hand, then measure the distance from the palm to the step. It is the value obtained that will be the optimal height of the handrail. Traditionally, the minimum height is 90 cm, the maximum handrail is raised by 110-115 cm.
If small children live in the house, you should not attach an additional stationary handrail, because it will not take a year for the child to grow up. It is better to install a temporary element that will run parallel to the main one. Other parameters of fences:
- The width of the ladder handrail usually varies from 3 to 7 cm. It is important to choose such a diameter so that the part fits comfortably in your hand.
- The distance between the individual balusters can be any, because in this case everything depends on the artistic intent of the owners of the structure. Usually the indicator is in the range from 50 to 70 cm .
Other standards that railings and fences in buildings must comply with
In accordance with GOST standards, as well as according to the state SNIP, it is recommended to adhere to such parameters:
- the height of the stair railing is 90-100 cm;
- the distance between adjacent racks is 60 cm;
- mandatory presence of filling between the balusters;
- the gap between the wall surface and the handrail is 7-10 cm;
- the distance beyond which the rounded end of the railing should protrude relative to the last step is 30 cm.
There are also separate standards for the load for which fences for stairs in a private house and public buildings should be designed. All data were obtained on the basis of tests conducted in accordance with SNIP 2.01.07-85. Thus, when creating structures, it is recommended to rely on such load parameters:
- social institutions: children’s institutions, hospitals and sanatoriums – more than 80 kg per square meter of fence;
- office buildings – 30-80 kg/m2;
- residential buildings – 80-100 kg/m2;
- premises designed for sporting events, stadium stands – more than 150 kg /m2.
Other mandatory safety requirements (according to the SNIP):
- it is mandatory to install handrails if the staircase consists of more than three steps;
- there should be no sharp corners or protrusions on the fence;
- it is necessary that the balustrade completely frames all flights of stairs.
Separate recommendations are also highlighted regarding railings and fences for stairs in children’s institutions (according to the norms of the 1.256-1 series):
- an additional handrail must be installed at a height of 50 cm from the floor;
- for greater convenience, it is recommended to use swivel brackets for railings during installation, allowing you to change the angle of inclination;
- it is strictly forbidden to use glass filling between the balusters;
- the clearance between the posts and the balusters is no more than 10 cm;
- the height of the barrier is 1.2–1.8 m.
Useful advice! If people who use wheelchairs live in the house, a ramp is installed instead of a ladder, and the railing must be made out on both sides.
Before starting the design of stairs, you should familiarize yourself with the recommendations regarding the arrangement of structural parts of railings, which are given by specialists in this field:
- The number of balusters is determined by the number and dimensions of the handrails. If the basis is made up of flexible and heavy materials, then the number of supports should be such that it is possible to prevent sagging of the profile or excessive overload of the supports.
- According to the standard, balusters are installed on each stage, but if they are wide, it is possible to install several supports on the same surface. When children live in the house, the distance between the balusters should be such that the baby could not put his head between them.
- If the width of the march is more than 1 meter, the staircase is equipped with railings on both sides.
- Wooden railings for stairs are allowed to be installed only in residential private houses.
- In office buildings, it is better to mount a bowstring instead of balusters.
- When arranging the space of a shopping and entertainment complex, it is mandatory to use at least three crossbars for railings.
Wooden handrails for stairs: when natural beauty brings comfort
The subtleties of creating railings. Design tips. Instructions for the manufacture of individual parts. Types of installation.
Fencing for stairs: types of structures, materials for manufacturing
As evidenced by the previous information, there are a large number of ways to arrange railings for the design of stairs. The choice of a particular option will depend on the location and features of the structure of the staircase. In general , there are such types of fences for stairs in the house:
- Interior. As the name implies, such structures are located indoors. In most cases, interior stairs are made of glass or wood, and the shade is selected depending on the surrounding interior.
- Exterior. This includes street railings for stairs framing a veranda, porch or balcony. It is necessary that the material tolerates various weather conditions well. Outside of residential premises, metal and concrete are used for fencing.
The most popular materials used for the manufacture of fences include:
- Metal. Basically, aluminum is used for the production of railings, which is characterized by an impeccable shine, or forged steel, which has unique decorative properties. Forged products are more often made to order.
- Tree. The most popular material for creating a staircase fence in a private house, because wood is warm to the touch and fits into most interiors.
- Polymers. The main material here is plastic, mounted with special fasteners. The main advantage of such products is low cost.
- Glass. Glass railings for stairs are used mainly for organizing space in shopping or office centers. Only tempered glass is suitable for creating structures.
- Concrete. It is found mainly in the design of the entrance to the building or on the front stairs. In this case, you can purchase ready-made structures in production or cast yourself directly at the construction site. You will only need special forms to work.
Fences made by combining materials are highlighted. The most common option is a combination of forged or aluminum balusters with wooden elements.
As for the shape of the railing, in this case everything will depend not only on the installation location of the structure, but also on the material used to create fences:
- Classic designs are made of wood. Most often, balusters are straight massive columns with rounded edges, often decorated with carvings.
- Stair railings made of metal are usually not so massive, but the products are abundantly decorated with decorative elements.
- Glass is not a very malleable material (unlike wood and metal), so this type of fencing will be distinguished by a strict and concise design.
Features of the use of wooden railings stairs
Despite the fact that the market of building materials does not stand still and is constantly replenished with new products, the tree does not lose its relevance, so such railings continue to be actively purchased. This is due to the fact that this material is of natural origin, it is not capable of harming the health of others.
The main advantages of fences made of wood:
- attractive appearance;
- nice structure and texture;
- ability to resist mechanical damage;
- resistance to the negative effects of the environment.
It should be noted that all these advantages can be multiplied if wooden structures are periodically treated with special solutions. A pretreated tree can be used not only indoors, but also outdoors.
It is quite easy to choose a suitable option for work, because products made of various types of wood, differing in pattern, color and quality, are presented on trading platforms. But fences made of different types of wood will differ in cost. Pine products are considered the cheapest. Oak structures are elite and durable, so they are characterized by a high price.
Wooden balusters are used to decorate interior stairs in houses more often than others. They are attached to both steps and wooden handrails. Depending on the type of stairs, the balusters differ in appearance and size. The size of the standard cross-section is 45×45 mm: the wider the staircase, the greater this indicator. Sometimes there are balusters with a cross-section of more than 50×50 or 60×60 mm.
A significant disadvantage of wooden stair railings is that the material, due to its natural origin, is subject to swelling and drying, especially if the ambient air indicators are constantly changing. This can reduce the strength of fences, and exterior stairs can deform and change color.
Why are stainless steel and aluminum stair railings popular
Fences for stairs made of stainless steel or aluminum are widely used in the organization of the exterior and interior. Nickel-plated or brass versions are installed a little less often, which were very popular at the end of the last century. It was then that fences made of brass and nickel were used for the arrangement of office and shopping centers.
It’s interesting! Metal railings have long been widely used due to their high consumer characteristics and versatility, which makes it possible to apply such structures both in the house and on the street with equal success.
Among the main advantages of metal railings for stairs are:
- Long service life. Handrails made of metal with proper care can last up to 50 years.
- Attractive appearance. Metallic luster can decorate any modern and even classic interior.
- Simple care. The products do not require constant maintenance, which consists in tinting or varnishing the elements. There is no need to apply antifungal or fire-fighting solutions, as in the case of wood. The only thing that needs to be done is to wipe the fences from time to time with a damp cloth.
- Resistance to destruction. Steel and aluminum, like other metals, are resistant to the appearance and development of rust, it is this fact that allows such structures to be installed everywhere.
- Cost. Stainless steel stair railings will be much cheaper than glass or forged products, but they are more expensive than wooden ones.
In addition to a large number of advantages, fences have some disadvantages. So, many users note that with the active operation of the structure, the ability of the material to withstand mechanical damage decreases. The surface is covered with small scratches and chips, which are felt to the touch, and the joints are loosened.
Advantages and disadvantages of wrought iron handrails for stairs
Wrought iron railings for stairs are considered an expensive, but high-quality option. At the same time, the finished designs are distinguished by exceptional beauty and sophistication. Several forging technologies are used for the manufacture of railings:
- Cold. The result of the work is simple shapes – twisted rods. As a rule, there are such variants of railings on the veranda or other outdoor structures.
- Hot. It requires considerable labor and time, but the result is a railing of unusual and ornate shapes. It is hot forging that allows you to create the most complex structures, but you need to be prepared for large financial costs.
The main advantages of wrought iron stair railings:
- Resistance to aggressive environmental influences. Fences without loss of appearance tolerate the effects of precipitation, temperature fluctuations and humidity well. In addition, they are not subject to mechanical damage.
- Long-term use. Forged products in most cases, even after 100 years, will look beautiful and attractive.
- Unique design. Forging is mainly used to fulfill individual orders. Thus, it is possible to decorate the staircase with exclusive fences.
The only disadvantage of wrought iron railings is considered to be high cost, because the entire manufacturing process is an exclusive manual work.
Features of plastic and glass railings for stairs
Glass stair railings are an excellent solution for modern interiors in the styles of hi–tech, minimalism, fusion and others. Due to the fact that only hardened (tempered) glass is suitable for creating railings, products are endowed with a large number of advantages:
- Ease and high speed of installation. You can install fences yourself, without using any complicated tools for this. By and large, the entire installation process will take no more than a few hours.
- A large assortment. On the trading platforms, a variety of material options are presented, which are characterized by additional advantages, such as sound insulation, frost resistance. More expensive glass railings for stairs differ in explosion and heat resistance.
- Durability. It will take as long to use glass structures as metal ones – about 50 years.
The advantages include the possibility of quick dismantling. If any of the sections deforms or loses its integrity, it will not be necessary to disassemble the entire structure, because all sections are located autonomously.
Among the disadvantages of glass railings for stairs for a country house, it is worth noting the need for constant maintenance. If the glass is not regularly wiped, then stains, fingerprints and other contaminants will be present on the surface, spoiling the appearance of the entire structure. Another conditional disadvantage is the high cost of finished products.
For the production of composite railings, hard plastic is used, mounted on a special retainer. The main advantage of polymer fences is low cost, because cheap plastic is used for the manufacture of products. It is important to understand that the advantages of plastic fences do not end there. Among other advantages stand out:
- easy care, because plastic is easy to get rid of stains and polish;
- no need for regular paint or varnish treatment.
At the same time, a significant disadvantage of plastic fences is the low resistance of the material to mechanical stress and shock. With strong pressure or impact, most likely, there will be a violation of the integrity of the structure.
Stone and concrete railings to the terrace and other outdoor structures
Fences made of stone or concrete are suitable mainly for the design of street structures: external staircases, porches or verandas. The material is characterized by increased ability to withstand external influences, has a significant weight, cold to the touch. It is for these reasons that concrete fences are not used inside houses.
Concrete is able to easily tolerate negative atmospheric influences, looks monumental and presentable externally. With its help, it will be possible to highlight the exterior of the house and emphasize the high status of the owners. Depending on the specifics of production , there are such types of stone balusters:
- Carved. As a rule, they are made by hand, which allows you to give the elements exquisite and diverse shapes.
- Point-based. A common variant of fences, which has rounded shapes. A distinctive feature is the presence of point supports, the horizontal section of which has the shape of a circle.
- Hewn. Balusters are distinguished by smooth edges and angular shapes, the horizontal cross-section of the columns resembles polygons.
As for materials, other stones are also suitable for the organization of railings:
- dagestan stone;
All these options are quite heavy, so often a lighter and easier-to-process artificial stone is used as a base. But the most durable fence is obtained only as a result of the use of granite, since this particular stone belongs to the hardest rocks.
Important! Stone handrails and railings look attractive and expensive. But it should be taken into account that structures have a significant impact on staircases, which must be taken into account when creating staircase projects.
It is recommended to combine stone fences with plank or metal stairs. Such a combination will beat the design and give the room a cozy and comfortable look.
Why do we need upper support elements of railings: fences made in various versions
In order for the railing to be comfortable and safe to use, they must necessarily be equipped with handrails, which are performed in different forms and using different materials.
As for the shape, there are handrails:
- round and oval;
- rectangular and square;
The material is selected depending on the purpose, features of use and location of the stairs. If we talk about the porch, here you can most often find forged, chrome, aluminum and other metal railings of stairs.
Handrails made on the basis of PVC are able to easily imitate any surface, but they are not so resistant to external influences. The main advantage is the high plasticity of the material, which allows you to give the elements any, even the most unusual shape. To do this, you will need a construction hair dryer or another device that pumps warm air. PVC handrails are also characterized by a low price.
For many years, wood has been the most popular material for making handrails due to the special comfort that wooden elements provide. Some decorate wooden railings for stairs with their own hands, using artistic cutting, the technique of aging surfaces, applying special solutions.
Handrails are also classified according to the method of fastening. Some mount the elements above the bowstring, but sometimes the handrails perform a supporting function. The handrails are attached to the balusters in various ways: using anchors or self-tapping screws, by welding. For mounting on the wall or along the ladder line, special cast brackets are used, allowing you to grasp the bar from any side, including the end.
If you want to emphasize the individuality and uniqueness of the interior, they resort to creating handrails of unconventional forms from improvised materials:
- Rough handrails made of untreated timber will perfectly fit into the interior of the chalet. Such an option will help to place accents in the room and emphasize the unusual interior.
- In a modern loft style or minimalism, railings made of branches in combination with PVC look appropriate.
- The nautical or rustic style will be well emphasized by a rope or a thick rope. At the same time, this option can be performed in the country or in a private house.
Other popular design options for railings and handrails
Every owner wants to make his house unique and fill it with individuality. Among the original design ideas , the following options stand out:
- continuous handrails made of light wood;
- smooth oak timber, installed with metal brackets;
- railings made by combining glass and chrome elements, in a wooden frame;
- steel railings located parallel to each other, diluted with curved sections and turns;
- metal and wooden fences, in the creation of which a uniform alternation of vertical and horizontal lines is used.
Checked! Illuminated railings look very unusual, especially if they are located against a background of dark walls. It is important to ensure reliable insulation of the wires so that they do not cause an electric shock.
If you choose the option of fencing with lighting, you should pay attention to such structures:
- Glass railings with lighting. In this case, the diode tape is embedded inside the main profile: for this purpose, it is recommended to choose diodes with a power of no more than 5 W / m. The color of the glow is selected based on the features of the interior design.
- Tubular mounting. For the arrangement, you will need remote clamps, where the backlight is attached. At the end, a rivet is installed for reliability.
- Wall-mounted. Railings and lighting fittings are installed using mirror grooved stainless steel pipes.
Fencing is an important element of any staircase, allowing you to make the use of the structure more comfortable and safe. It is thanks to various variants of execution that it will be possible to decorate the interior or exterior of the house. In order to make it convenient to use handrails and handrails, it is important to choose not only the shape, but also the material for their manufacture.